Mountains and Eco-Economy. A New Attitude in the XXI Century. Economic Recession and Efforts in the Romanian Carpathians
1 Romanian Academy, National Institute for Economic Research, Center of Mountain Economy, Vatra Dornei, ROMANIA
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Abstract. Demographic growth and the climatic changes, the perspectives of hunger in the 21st century turn mountains into points of interest for food and human habitat. A new attitude is necessary, aiming at preservation of population and flora of mountain grasslands and hayfields, created during centuries, based on organic fertilizers, whose absence for only 7-8 years has led to irretrievable degradation. In the Romanian Carpathians a wide regression can be noticed: rural exodus, agriculture and zootechnics abandonment, industrial food monopoly, with ridiculously low prices for milk and meat, poverty, discouragement, the significant agriculture’s domination over the mountain eco-bio economy, with economic marginalization. The economic recession has seriously affected the mountains. Safeguarding is still possible, through specific ample measures. The differences between the mountain development rates of the West-South-East regions are too large. The weak competencies, as far as the knowledge of mountain specificity is concerned, constitute a real peril. A European mountain strategy and national mountain policies are considered emergencies.
K e y w o r d s: eco-bio-economy, sustainable development, environment, biodiversity, management of environment, mountain agriculture, climatic changes