Between Marginalization and Integration – Hawkers on the Streets in Downtown, Amman, Jordan
Tameer Mohammad AL BATTARAN1, Raed AL TAL*1
* Corresponding author
1German Jordanian University, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Architecture, Amman, JORDAN
E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. Hawkers are very common in Jordan and are mostly present in condensed urban areas such as downtown Amman. Hawkers in this area suffer due to daily eviction campaigns carried out by Amman Municipality and other parties. They consider them to be the main cause of visual pollution and trouble to shop owners and pedestrians in the downtown area. This study is a field ethnographic study by implementing an embedded design. The study uses qualitative data, which is supported by quantitative data analysed by using the SPSS software. The findings of the study are the result of a deep understanding of the patterns of hawkers using the qualitative methodology, which reveals how hawkers generally obstruct sidewalks by displaying their goods and with their physical presence. The marginalization experienced by hawkers has a great effect on them psychologically and financially because they are on constant alert to evade eviction campaigns, and if arrested they are at risk of losing a large part of their goods, which are sometimes stolen or lost. Results show that there is a correlation between them and that physical defensibility is higher than social defensibility. This research is an appropriate standing point in investigating and developing solutions for this issue in downtown, Amman, Jordan, and similar cases in different settings. The outcome of this study is a comprehensive and descriptive spatial analysis that can provide socio-spatial interpretations and can recommend urban response policies in re-defining the meaning of urban space.
K e y w o r d s: hawkers, behaviour, public space, planning, marginalization, social defensibility, Amman, Jordan